Mutual Fund Investing Basics

Take the time to familiarize yourself with mutual fund basics before making investment decisions.

Mutual Fund Tools and Resources

Find out more information on our mutual funds before making investment decisions.

Mutual Fund Investing Basics

A mutual fund is a pool of investments managed by a professional portfolio manager. The portfolio manager invests the money on behalf of a group of investors who have similar investment goals. The fund’s goals are outlined in the fund objectives and how the portfolio manager invests the money to meet the fund’s objective are outlined in the fund’s strategies.

Depending on the fund’s investment objective, a mutual fund can invest in stocks, bonds, cash, or other mutual funds or exchange traded funds. BMO Mutual Funds are further categorized as Security, Income, Growth, Equity Growth, U.S. Dollar Funds and Managed Solutions.

Mutual Funds provide many benefits, including professional money management and diversification with broad investment options across sectors, asset classes and geographies. They are easy to buy and are also available with low minimum initial investment amounts.

Discover the range of Mutual Fund strategies available to you.

 
Building a Financial Plan

The best approach to achieve your specific investment goals is to build a financial plan. Depending on your personal investment knowledge, it may be a good idea to seek advice from an investment professional. An investment professional will help you to build your personalized, tailored plan and monitor it with you on an on-going basis. Some of the things you will need to think about are what you are saving for, how long you plan to stay invested and your risk tolerance.

A plan will help you stay invested and stay focused on your long term goals.

 
Risk Reward Trade-Off

In selecting the mutual funds that best meets your individual needs, you will need to consider the trade-off between risk and returns.

The value of a mutual fund can go up or down. Mutual funds are affected by things like changes in interest rates, economic conditions in Canada or around the world or news about companies the fund invests in. How big the fund’s value changes are is a measure of risk. This is called volatility.

Investments that have the highest return potential fluctuate more with the market in the short term and have a greater possibility of gaining value over the long term.

Diversification is an important investment strategy to help reduce volatility and manage risk.

 
Prospectus and Fund Facts

Every mutual fund company must publish and file with the regulators on an annual basis a simplified prospectus and fund facts for each fund and series it offers for sale. The prospectus and fund facts contain a lot of relevant information on the funds you hold. See below for more information of what is contained within a sample prospectus product page and a sample fund facts.

Sample prospectus product page 

Sample funds facts 

As a result of recent regulatory changes implemented in 2014, the prospectus is no longer delivered to investors at the point of sale, unless specifically requested by the investor. The fund facts document is now mailed to investors after the sales process is completed.

The most recent versions of these documents are always available on our website in the Legal and Regulatory Section.

Mutual Fund Fees

Mutual funds have associated fees. The cost of owning a mutual fund is called the Management Expense Ratio (MER). The MER is an annual fee that is charged by the fund to pay for the costs of running the fund and includes the management fees and operating expenses. The management fees and operating expenses are also subject to applicable taxes. The MER varies by fund and by series. Learn More 

The fund may also be subject to a Trading Expense Ratio (TER). The TER represents the costs each fund spends on brokerage commissions for buying and selling the underlying investments. The TER is not part of the MER. Typically, new funds, funds with high portfolio turnover or funds with foreign securities will typically have a higher TER.

The MER and TER for each series can be found on the most recently filed fund facts.

 

Sales or Redemptions Charges

An addition to the MER, certain series of funds may have sales or redemptions charges. Advisor Series, Series T5, Load Series T6, and Series T8 may also have a sales charge or redemption fee. Each of these series is offered in a front-end, deferred sales charge or low load sales charge option.

You may pay an up-front fee, negotiated between you and your dealer at the time of purchase, if you buy the front-end sales charge option of any of the above series. You will pay a redemption fee if you sell your investment within a certain time period if you buy the deferred or low load sales charge options.

Refer to the FAQ for more information: What costs are associated with mutual funds?

 

How do investors make money from a mutual fund?

Investors in a mutual fund can make money from:

Income distributions – a fund can earn income such as interest and dividends, and from time to time distribute that income to investors.
Capital gains distributions – a fund will realize capital gains when it sells an investment for more than its cost. A fund can also realize a capital loss if it sells an investment for less than its cost. Each year, a fund will distribute its net realized capital gains to investors.
Capital growth – the value of an investment in a fund will rise when the value of the fund’s investments rises, even if the fund has not sold the investments.

If you hold your mutual funds in a registered plan, distributions can only be reinvested in additional securities. If you hold your mutual funds in a non-registered account, distributions will normally be reinvested in additional securities, but you have the option to request to receive distributions in cash.

 

Taxes and your Mutual Funds

In general, you’ll have to pay tax on any money you make on a fund. How much you pay depends on the tax laws where you live and whether or not you hold the fund in a registered plan such as a Registered Retirement Savings Plan or a Tax-Free Savings Account.

If you hold your mutual funds in a registered plan, generally, neither you nor your registered plan is subject to tax on distributions paid by the mutual fund or on capital gains realized when the mutual funds are redeemed or switched. If you hold your mutual funds in a Tax Free Savings Account (TFSA), your investment will grow tax free and you can withdrawal your money tax free.

If you hold your mutual funds in a non-registered account, distributions will be subject to tax whether they are received in cash or reinvested in additional securities. The amount of tax you pay depends on the type of distribution and your marginal tax rate. If your mutual fund increases in value, then you will be required to pay tax on the gain when you sell the fund.

Mutual Fund Basics

Mutual Funds are a pool of investors’ money invested on their behalf by a professional money manager in various securities. Mutual funds primarily invest in three broad types of asset classes: cash, stocks, and bonds. BMO Mutual Funds further groups their funds into Security, Income, Growth, Equity Growth, U.S. Dollar Funds and Managed Solutions, each with a unique investment style.

Mutual Funds offer many benefits including:

  • Professional Management – Decisions are made by investment professionals
  • Flexibility – Low minimums to start investing
  • Diversified Portfolio – Reduce risk by spreading investments across securities
  • Broad range of investments – Access to investment opportunities around the world, across various sectors, asset classes and geographies
  • Ability to buy and sell daily – Conveniently access your money when you need it

Managed solutions typically ‘wrap’ a mix of underlying mutual funds and/or ETFs into a single portfolio providing investors with unique features and benefits:

  • Ease of Use:

Created for clients seeking a one-stop solution that can meet their long term goals

  • More Return, Less Risk:

Portfolios designed to target the maximum potential return for a given level of risk

  • Best of Both Worlds:

Invest in the best of actively managed mutual funds and/or passively managed ETFs

The cost of owning a fund is known as the Management Expense Ratio (MER) and includes all the costs of running the fund. MER includes the management fee, operating expenses and applicable taxes. The MER varies by fund and by series. Each fund may also be subject to a Trading Expense Ratio (TER). The TER is the Trading Expense Ratio and represents the costs each fund spends on brokerage commissions for buying and selling the underlying investments. The MER and TER for each fund at the series level can be found on the most recently filed fund facts.

Advisor Series, Series T5, Load Series T6, and Series T8 may also have a sales charge or redemption fee. Series A does not have any sales charges or redemption fees.

The sales charge or redemption fee depends on the purchase option as follows:

 

Purchase Options Sales Charge Redemption Fees
Front-End (FE) You pay a negotiated fee to your dealer at the time of purchase of 0-5% for all funds expect for BMO Money Market Fund which is up to 2%. None
Deferred Sales Charge (DSC) None paid by investor A declining redemption fee will apply if the investment is redeemed within the first 7 years of purchase. This redemption fee reduces from 6% in the first year to 0% after 7 years.
Low Load Deferred Sales Charge (LL) None paid by investor

A declining redemption fee will apply if the investment is redeemed with the first 3 years of purchase. It reduces from 3% in the first year to 0% after 3 years.

 

Redemption fees are applicable only to investments made in mutual funds purchased under the DSC or LL options. The fee is charged on redemptions which are not part of the “Free Redemption Amount” (applicable to the DSC option only), and are not switched in to another BMO Mutual Fund with the same sales charge option. The fee is based on the cost of the investment redeemed, including the cost of reinvested distributions, at the following rates:

DSC Option:

If the Redemption Takes Place:

Then the Redemption Fee is:

During the 1st Year

6.0%

During the 2nd Year

5.5%

During the 3rd Year

5.0%

During the 4th Year

4.5%

During the 5th Year

4.0%

During the 6th Year

3.0%

During the 7th Year

2.0%

After the 7th Year

Nil

LL Option:

If the Redemption Takes Place:

Then the Redemption Fee is:

During the 1st Year

3.0%

During the 2nd Year

2.0%

During the 3rd Year

1.0%

After the 3rd Year

Nil

No. CDIC is a Federal Crown corporation created to protect eligible deposits held by you with financial institutions. Mutual fund securities are not eligible deposits.

Mutual Funds are considered long-term investments. The values of individual mutual funds fluctuate based on the underlying investments held by the funds which are, in turn, affected by changes in interest rates, economic conditions and company news.

Funds invested in equities generally fluctuate more (or are more volatile) than those invested in fixed income securities, but also tend to provide higher returns over the long-term.

Tax Related Questions

If you hold your investments in a registered account, generally neither you nor your registered plan is subject to tax on distributions.

If you hold you investments in a non-registered account, distributions will be subject to tax whether they are received in cash or reinvested in additional securities.

Generally, tax implications for mutual fund distributions are as follows:

  • Dividends – generally treated as ordinary income and taxed at your marginal tax rate. However, where a mutual fund pays a distribution out of dividends received from Canadian companies, the investor can treat the distribution as if it were a dividend from a Canadian company. For investors who are Canadian resident individuals, this means that the distribution qualifies for the lower effective tax rate applicable to dividends from Canadian companies.
  • Interest and Other Income – generally treated as ordinary income and taxed at your marginal tax rate.
  • Capital Gains – if a mutual fund pays a distribution out of its net realized capital gains, an investor can usually treat the distribution as if it were a capital gain realized by the investor. Half of such a capital gain distribution has to be included in the investor’s income.
  • Foreign Income and Foreign Tax Paid – if a mutual fund pays distributions out of income earned from foreign investments, an investor that pays Canadian tax may be able to claim a foreign tax credit for foreign tax paid by the mutual fund.
  • Return of Capital (ROC) – this type of distribution is generally not taxable, but will decrease the adjusted cost base (ACB) of the securities. When the investor disposes of the securities, the lower ACB will increase the capital gain (or decrease the capital loss) that would otherwise result.

If you hold you investments in a non-registered account, income and realized capital gains distributions will be subject to tax whether they are received in cash or reinvested in additional securities. The amount of reinvested distributions is added to the ACB of your securities, so that you do not pay tax on the amount again at a later date.

A mutual fund can be set up as a trust or a corporation. The BMO Trust Funds are organized as trusts. When you invest in a BMO Trust Fund, you are buying units of a trust.

A BMO Trust Fund flows its taxable income through to investors in the form of distributions. Investors are generally taxed on this income as if they earned it directly.

You can switch units from one BMO Trust Fund into another BMO Trust Fund. This is a disposition for income tax purposes and may result in a capital gain or capital loss. Net capital gains are taxable.

As required by tax legislation, T3, T5 and NR4 tax slips are issued to both the client and reported to the Canada Revenue Agency for any income or capital gains distributed from the fund. These slips are only issued for investments held in non-registered accounts.

T3 slips are issued for mutual funds that are trusts. T5 slips are issued for mutual funds that are corporations. NR4 slips are issued to report amounts paid to non-residents of Canada.

For residents of the province of Quebec, BMO Mutual Funds issues these provincial income tax forms, equivalent to the following Federal forms:

Releve 16            =             T3

Releve 3              =             T5

Releve 2              =             T4RRSP/RIF

BMO Mutual Funds T3s and T5s are sent out annually at the end of February. NR4s are sent out in mid-March.

How do I buy Mutual Funds?

You may choose to purchase BMO Mutual Funds through a Financial Advisor. A Financial Advisor is a person who is a representative of a Dealer, is registered with the securities authorities, handles the public’s orders to buy and sell securities and usually charges a commission for that service.

For all accounts, except a RRIF account, the minimum initial investment is $500, and minimum subsequent investment is $50. For a RRIF account, the minimum initial investment is $5,000.

For purchases of US Dollar funds, payment must be made in US currency.

If you set up a Continuous Savings Plan (CSP), the minimum initial investment is $50 a month for all accounts.

You cannot switch between funds purchased in U.S. Dollars and funds purchased in Canadian dollars. You can only switch between funds purchased in the same currency.

Also known as the BMO Mutual Funds Asset Builder, this program makes it easy for you to make regular investments automatically in the fund or funds of your choice. We can make preauthorized withdrawals from your chequing account with a Canadian bank on a regular basis and invest them automatically into the funds you choose. The minimum amount of each investment is $50 (US$50 for US NAV funds).

Making regular investments through a CSP can reduce the cost of investing. For example, if you invest $100 in a fund each month, that money will buy more securities of the fund when prices are low and fewer securities when prices are high. Over time, this can mean a lower average cost per security than if you had made one lump-sum purchase.

Setting up a CSP provides convenience because investing will be automatically done for you at the frequency you choose and will help ensure you remain disciplined with your savings to meet your investment goals.

Under this program, which is available only through dealers, you can arrange for regular) transfers from a lump sum investment in a BMO Money Market Fund or BMO U.S. Dollar Money Market Fund to a maximum of five other funds of your choice. The minimum initial investment is $5,000 CAD (US$5,000 for US NAV Funds) and the minimum transfer amount to any one fund each time is $50 CAD (US$50 for US NAV funds).

This program is also known as an Automatic Withdrawal Account (AWA). If you hold at least $10,000 in investments in any of the funds (US$10,000 in US NAV funds), you can arrange for a regular redemption of securities from your account.

The minimum amount for each payment is $100 (US$100 for US NAV funds) and you can receive the payments either by cheque or by direct deposit into your bank account at a Canadian financial institution. This service is not available to investors who hold their securities in a registered plan. It’s important to keep in mind that, if your redemptions are more than the distributions paid by a fund and any changes in the value of your securities, you will begin to reduce your original investment.

Under this program, which is available only through dealers, you can arrange to have distributions made by one fund to be automatically reinvested in another fund or funds within the same series or currency. The reinvestment will be processed and trade dated on the same valuation date as if it was reinvested in the fund that made the distribution. This service is not available to investors who hold their securities in a registered plan.

A

Active Investing

An investing approach that aims to identify and invest in securities that may be mispriced by the market with the view of generating enhanced returns. It's a strategy that can involve amongst other things, in-depth analysis of companies' financial statements and significant understanding of various markets and companies from around the world.

ADRs

American Depository Receipts. ADRs are a type of negotiable financial security that is traded on a local stock exchange but represent a security that is issued by a foreign publicly-listed company.

Annualized Rate of Return

An annualized rate of return is a cumulative return expressed as an equivalent annual compounded rate. A compounded rate of return includes the effect of interest-on-interest.

Asset Class

A type of investment such as stocks, bonds, real estate or cash.

Assets

The amount of money invested in a fund. Also referred to as Net Asset Value (NAV).

B

Basket of Securities

in relation to a particular BMO ETF, a group of securities determined by the Manager from time to time representing the constituents of the applicable index in approximately the same weightings as such constituents are weighted in the applicable index.

Benchmark Index

A standard against which the performance of a security or mutual fund can be measured. Generally, broad market indexes are used for this purpose.

Bond

A debt instrument promising to pay its holders periodic interest (or coupon) payments on a fixed amount of principal and maturity.

C

Cash and Cash equivalents

This asset class includes money market instruments and are short-term, highly liquid, low risk and relatively low return investment holdings.

Continuous Savings Plan (CSP) Amount

The amount you can automatically invest in your mutual funds on a weekly, bi-weekly, monthly, bi-monthly, quarterly, semi-monthly, monthly or annually basis. Once you set up a CSP, we'll automatically transfer money from your bank account to buy units of the funds you choose.

D

Date Started / Inception Date

The date that a fund became available for sale to investors.

Deferred Sales Charge (DSC)

If you purchase your funds under the deferred sales charge option, you may be required to pay a fee if you redeem your fund units within a specified number of years after your purchase. Some fund companies offer both a Standard Deferred Sales Charge option and a Low Load Deferred Sales Charge option (i.e. over a reduced number of years).

Derivative

Specialized investments like forward or future contracts, options contracts, and swap agreements whose value is based on the value of another investment called an underlying investment.

Designated Broker

a registered dealer, including BMO Nesbitt Burns Inc., an affiliate of the Manager, that has entered into a designated broker agreement with the Manager, on behalf of one or more BMO ETFs pursuant to which the Designated Broker agrees to perform certain duties in relation to the BMO ETFs.

Distribution Frequency

The amount of times during a year that a mutual fund pays distributions to unitholders. This is typically monthly, quarterly or annually.

Distribution Payment Date

a day which is no later than the 10th business day following the applicable distribution record date, on which a BMO ETF pays a distribution to its Unitholders.

Distribution Record Date

a date determined by the Manager as a record date for the determination of Unitholders of a BMO ETF entitled to receive a distribution.

DPSPs

Deferred profit sharing plans as defined in the tax act.

Duration

measures the approximate sensitivity of a bond's price to a change in interest rates. A duration of , for example, means that the price of the bond would decrease/increase by approximately 2% if the interest rate increased/decreased by 1%.

E

Eligibility

Indicates types of registered plans a mutual fund may be held in.

Equity (Stock)

Shares of ownership in a company.

Equity Growth Funds

A category of BMO Mutual Funds, these funds maximize return potential through investing in specific market sectors or emerging economies with greater growth potential. These may entail greater risk than conventional growth funds.

ETF

exchange-traded fund.

ETF Summary Document

summarizes certain features of the ETF such as performance and total cost. All purchasers of an ETF will receive this publicly available document.

F

Financial Statements

Annual and semi-annual fund specific reports that provide the financial position of the mutual fund.

Front-end Load (Sales Charge Option)

Under a front-end (FE) load option, you pay a commission to your dealer when you buy units of a fund. The commission is usually negotiable between you and your dealer.

Fund Facts

The Fund Facts documents highlight key information about each available series of a fund, including the performance history, risk ranking, investor suitability and the cost of buying and owning a fund.

Fund Total Assets

The amount of money invested in a fund, also referred to as Net Asset Value (NAV). NAV is calculated by adding the total value of the Fund's assets and subtracting the liabilities.

G

Growth Funds

A category of BMO Mutual Funds, these funds provide potential for higher long-term returns, often by investing in stocks. They range from relatively conservative equity funds that specialize in high quality Canadian "blue chip" stocks to funds that invest in major global stock markets. It's important to remember that higher growth potential may entail greater risk.

I

Inception Date

The date that a fund became available for sale to investors.

Income Funds

A category of BMO Mutual Funds, these funds typically invest in bonds, mortgages and other fixed income securities. The level of income and risk depend on the characteristics of investments in the fund's portfolio.

Investment Objectives

Included in the prospectus and fund facts, the fund's objective outlines the goals of the fund.

L

Last Distribution

The last date that a payout was made to unitholders of the net income or realized capital gains earned by a mutual fund.

Low Load Deferred Sales Charge (Low Load)

If you purchased your funds under the low load sales charge option (LL), you may be required to pay a fee if you redeem your fund units within a specified number of years after your purchase. Some fund companies offer both a Standard Deferred Sales Charge option and a Low Load Deferred Sales Charge option (i.e. over a reduced number of years).

M

Managed Solutions

An investment solution that wraps a mix of underlying mutual funds and/or ETFs into a single portfolio.

Management Expense Ratio (MER)

the ratio, expressed as a percentage, of the expenses of a fund to its average net asset value.

Management Expense Ratio (MER)

The management expense ratio is the total annual fee charged by the fund to pay for the costs associated with running the fund. It includes the management fee, operating expenses and applicable taxes. It does not include the TER. It is expressed as an annualized percentage of the average net asset value of the funds.

Management Fee

Each fund pays the manager a fee for management services and this fee is included in the fund's MER. The management fee is a percentage of your total investment and varies by fund and by series. It does not include a fund's operating expenses related to the operation of the fund.

Management Report of Financial Performance (MRFP)

Annual and semi-annual fund-specific reports that includes a management discussion of fund performance; financial highlights; past performance, and a summary of portfolio holdings as at the end of the relevant period.

Manager

BMO Asset Management, a Canadian investment manager responsible for providing managerial, administrative and compliance services to the BMO ETFs.

N

NAV

in relation to a particular BMO ETF, the total assets of the BMO ETF less the value of the total liabilities of the BMO ETF, as at a specific date.

NAV per Unit

in relation to a particular BMO ETF, the net asset value per unit, calculated by dividing the NAV of the BMO ETF by the total number of units outstanding.

No-load

A no-load mutual fund does not require you to pay a sales charge or redemptions fee when you buy, switch or redeem units of the fund.

O

Operating Expenses

Each fund pays operating expenses that include administration fees related to the day to day operation of the fund such as audit, legal, recordkeeping system and custodian fees. Operating expenses are included in the management expense ratio (MER) of a fund.

P

Passive Investing

An investing approach that provides access to a broad market, for example, through an index fund or exchange traded fund (ETF) that typically tracks the performance of a market index.

Portfolio Manager

Registered individual who manages the assets and expenses of a mutual fund according to the fund's objectives.

Price (NAVPS)

The market value of one unit of a mutual fund on a given day. Net Asset Value (NAV) is calculated by adding the total value of the Fund's assets and subtracting the liabilities. To find the net asset value per security (NAVPS), the Fund's Net Asset Value is divided by the total number of securities outstanding.

Prospectus

The simplified prospectus is a legal document that contains important information about each BMO Mutual Fund to help investors make investment decisions and understand their rights as investors. The prospectus includes the fund objectives and strategies, associated fees and risks as well as distribution policy.

R

RDSP (Registered Disability Savings Plan)

A plan that provides people with disabilities an easy and effective way to save and invest for their long-term financial security.

Registrar and Transfer Agent

in relation to a particular BMO ETF, CIBC Mellon Trust Company.

Reinvestment Price

The price at which unitholders, who have opted to reinvest their distributions, buy additional units of a mutual fund with the distribution proceeds.

RESP (Registered Education Savings Plan)

A plan that allows investors to save for post-secondary education on a tax-sheltered basis.

RIF (Retirement Income Fund)

A plan that holds your retirement savings and provides income after you retire. There are rules about how much you may take out each year.

ROC (Return of Capital)

A mutual fund trust may distribute a ROC if it distributes more than its net income and net realized capital gains. A ROC distribution is not included in your income, but instead reduces the adjusted cost base ("ACB") of the securities on which it was paid.

S

Sales Commissions (Load)

You may be required to pay a commission when you buy the (front-end load) version of a mutual fund.

Security Funds

A category of BMO Mutual Funds that help you preserve wealth, while providing a modest level of income. They offer safety of principal, regular income payments and easy access to money should you need it. Money market funds are typical security funds.

Short-term Trading Fee

A fund may charge a short-term trading penalty (e.g. up to 2% of the amount that you redeem or switch) if you buy or switch and then redeem or switch securities of a fund within a specified number of days (e.g. 30 days) of purchasing or switching them. This penalty is meant to discourage short-term trading by investors because it may adversely affect all investors in a fund.

Strategic Asset Allocation

An investing approach that maintains a predetermined mix of asset weightings within a portfolio. For example, a simple strategic allocation model might target a weighting of 60% in equities and 40% in bonds. Because the value of investments can change over time, the portfolio would be rebalanced regularly to maintain the preset asset weightings.

T

Tactical Asset Allocation

: An investing approach that aims to take advantage of perceived market opportunities by increasing a portfolio's weightings in some assets and reducing other assets correspondingly. This approach may also include placing upper and lower bounds around asset class allocations. For example, for equities in a portfolio, a lower bound might be 40%, an upper bound 80% and a neutral weighting 60%.

Trading Day

for each BMO ETF, a day on which: (i) a session of the TSX is held; (ii) the primary market or exchange for the majority of the securities held by the BMO ETF is open for trading.

Trading expense ratio (TER)

The TER represents the costs each fund spends on brokerage commissions for buying and selling the underlying investments. The TER is not part of the MER. Typically, new funds, funds with high portfolio turnover or foreign securities will have a higher TER.

Trailing Commission (Service Fees)

This is an ongoing type of service commission paid by fund companies to dealers and brokers for the continued advice and service they provide to investors. They are usually based on the value of the units of the funds that their clients hold.

TSX

The Toronto Stock Exchange.

U

Unitholder

a holder of units of a BMO ETF.

V

Valuation Agent

BMO Asset Management.

Valuation Date

each Trading Day and any other day designated by the Manager on which the NAV and NAV per Unit of a BMO ETF will be calculated. If that BMO ETF elects to have a December 15 year-end for tax purposes as permitted by the Income Tax Act (Canada), the NAV per Unit will be calculated on December 15.

Valuation Time

4:00 p.m. EST on each Valuation Sat or, if the market closes earlier that day, then the time as of which the market closes.

Y

Year to Date (YTD) Return

as at a specific date during a calendar year, the rate of return beginning January 1st of that calendar year to the specific date.

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